How the East Learned to Live with the West
By Ayse Zarakol
Published by Cambridge University Press December 2010
Not being of the West; being behind the West; not being modern enough; not being developed or industrialized, secular, civilized, Christian, transparent, or democratic - these descriptions have all served to stigmatize certain states through history. Drawing on constructivism as well as the insights of social theorists and philosophers, After Defeat demonstrates that stigmatization in international relations can lead to a sense of national shame, as well as auto-Orientalism and inferior status. Ayşe Zarakol argues that stigmatized states become extra-sensitive to concerns about status, and shape their foreign policy accordingly. The theoretical argument is supported by a detailed historical overview of central examples of the established/outsider dichotomy throughout the evolution of the modern states system, and in-depth studies of Turkey after the First World War, Japan after the Second World War, and Russia after the Cold War.
The Propriety of Liberty: Persons, Passions, and Judgement in Modern Political Thought
By Duncan Kelly
Published by Princeton University Press November 2010
In this book, Duncan Kelly excavates, from the history of modern political thought, a largely forgotten claim about liberty as a form of propriety. By rethinking the intellectual and historical foundations of modern accounts of freedom, he brings into focus how this major vision of liberty developed between the seventeenth and the nineteenth centuries.
In his framework, celebrated political writers, including John Locke, Montesquieu, Adam Smith, John Stuart Mill, and Thomas Hill Green pursue the claim that freedom is best understood as a form of responsible agency or propriety, and they do so by reconciling key moral and philosophical claims with classical and contemporary political theory. Their approach broadly assumes that only those persons who appropriately regulate their conduct can be thought of as free and responsible. At the same time, however, they recognize that such internal forms of self-propriety must be judged within the wider context of social and political life. Kelly shows how the intellectual and practical demands of such a synthesis require these great writers to consider freedom as part of a broader set of arguments about the nature of personhood, the potentially irrational impact of the passions, and the obstinate problems of individual and political judgement. By exploring these relationships, The Propriety of Liberty not only revises the intellectual history of modern political thought, but also sheds light on contemporary debates about freedom and agency.
The Oxford Handbook of Local and Regional Democracy in Europe
Edited by John Loughlin, Frank Hendriks, and Anders Lidström
Published by Oxford University Press November 2010
The Oxford Handbook of Local and Regional Democracy in Europe analyses the state of play of democracy at the sub-national level in the 27 member states of the EU plus Norway and Switzerland. It places sub-national democracy in the context of the distinctive Anglo, the French, the German and Scandinavian state traditions in Europe asking to what extent these are still relevant today.
The Handbook adapts Lijphart's theory of democracy and applies it to the sub-national levels in all the country chapters. A key theoretical issue is whether sub-national (regional and local) democracy is derived from national democracy or whether it is legitimate in its own right. Besides these theoretical concerns it focuses on the practice of democracy: the roles of political parties and interest groups and also how sub-national political institutions relate to the ordinary citizen. This can take the form of local referendums or other mechanisms of participation. The Handbook reveals a wide variety of practices across Europe in this regard. Local financial systems also reveal a great variety. Finally, each chapter examines the challenges facing subnational democracy but also the opportunities available to them to enhance their democratic systems. Among the challenges identified are: Europeanization, globalization, but also citizens disaffection and switch-off from politics. Some countries have confronted these challenges more successfully than others but all countries face them.
An important aspect of the Handbook is the inclusion of all the countries of East and Central Europe plus Cyprus and Malta, who joined the EU in 2004 and 2007. This is the first time they have been examined alongside the countries of Western Europe from the angle of subnational democracy.
The primacy of foreign policy in British history, 1660-2000. How strategic concerns shaped modern Britain
Edited by Brendan Simms and William Mulligan
Published by Palgrave Macmillan October 2010
External challenges, strategic threats, and war – in short the primacy of foreign policy – have shaped the course of modern British history. This volume examines how Britain mobilized to meet these challenges and how developments in the constitution, the state, the public sphere, and the economy were a response to foreign policy issues from the Restoration to the rise of New Labour in the late twentieth century.
The modern British state has its origins in the wars of the late seventeenth century. Since then the long struggle with France, which ended with victory over Napoleon in 1815, the rise of Germany in the late nineteenth century, the two world wars, the Cold War, and European integration have been amongst the most significant preoccupations in British politics and have been integral to the history of modern Britain.
How to Become One and How to Manage Them
By Amrita Narlikar
Published by C Hurst and Co Publishers July 2010
Being the new kid on the block is seldom easy at any level, and it is certainly not easy in the anarchical world of international politics. New powers such as Brazil, China and India have to tread a difficult balance as they negotiate their way to the top. They must signal a sufficient level of conformity to show that they do not pose a threat to the system, and thereby avoid preemptive reprisals. But habitually conciliatory diplomacy is likely to lead established powers to regard them as pushovers. Effective bargaining holds the key to finding the balance between these extremes. Established powers also have no straightforward answers available to them. If the aims of the new power are limited, then engagement is a worthwhile enterprise. But if they are radically revisionist or revolutionary, then its disruptive potential to the system may necessitate containment from the established powers. Assessing the intentions of new powers and responding appropriately is crucial for the maintenance of international peace and stability. The key to such an assessment lies in an analysis of negotiation behaviour, which Narlikar examines in the case of the three most important candidates vying for great power status today – Brazil, China, and India. Together they present some fascinating commonalities in their diplomacy but also significant differences. The range of cases of new powers studied here also allows us some scope for generalisation on how new entrants into great power clubs might behave, and what strategies the established powers can use most effectively to accommodate their rise.
Ethics and World Politics
By Duncan Bell
Published by Oxford University Press March 2010
Designed to appeal to teachers and students of international relations and political theory, this exciting, user-friendly text explores the ethical dimensions of some of the most complex problems in world politics.
The book opens with a discussion of different methods and approaches employed to study the subject, including analytical political theory, post-structuralism and critical theory. It then surveys some of the most prominent perspectives on global ethics, including cosmopolitanism, communitarianism of various kinds, theories of international society, realism, postcolonialism, feminism, and green political thought. Part III examines a variety of more specific issues, including immigration, democracy, human rights, the just war tradition and its critics, international law, and global poverty and inequality.